Leeds heatwave: Heatstroke symptoms, NHS advice and how to keep yourself cool as temperatures could hit 40C

Temperatures could hit 40C in Leeds tomorrow - the highest ever recorded in the city.

The Met Office has issued an urgent red warning for extreme heat, with the exceptionally hot weather expected to lead to serious impacts on people and infrastructure.

Chief meteorologist at the Met Office Paul Davies warned Monday night will be “very oppressive” and it will be difficult to sleep in the heat.

The top forecaster said he was “really concerned” about the UK hitting 40 or 41C on Tuesday.

Temperatures could hit 40C in Leeds tomorrow

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Here are the Government's tips on how to keep cool in the heat.

Look after yourself, older people and the young

The heat can affect anyone, but some people run a greater risk of serious harm. Remember to think of those who may be more at risk from the effects of heat – these include the following:

If you have to go out in the heat, walk in the shade and wear lightweight, loose-fitting, light coloured cotton clothes

- older people, especially those over 75

- babies and young children

- people with a serious chronic condition, particularly dementia, heart, breathing or mobility problems

- people with serious mental health problems

- people on certain medications, including those that affect sweating and temperature control (for example, diuretics, antihistamines, beta-blockers and antipsychotics

- people who are already ill and dehydrated (for example, from gastroenteritis)

- people who misuse alcohol or drugs

- people who are physically active (for example, soldiers, athletes, hikers and manual workers)

- homeless people

Stay out of the heat, cool yourself down, keep your environment cool or find somewhere else that is cool.

Look out for neighbours, family or friends who may be isolated and unable to care for themselves; make sure they are able to keep cool during a heatwave.

Get medical advice if you are suffering from a chronic medical condition or taking multiple medications.

Make sure medicines are stored below 25°C or in the fridge (read the storage instructions on the packaging).

Carry on taking all prescribed medicines unless advised not to by a medical professional. But be aware that some prescription medicines can reduce your tolerance of heat.

Be alert and if someone is unwell or needs further help, seek medical advice.

Plan ahead to avoid the heat

Avoid being out in the sun during the hottest part of the day (around midday) and plan your day to avoid heavy activity during extreme heat.

Bring everything you will need with you, such as a bottle of water, sun cream and a hat.

If you have to go out in the heat, walk in the shade, apply sunscreen, and wear a hat and light clothing.

Be prepared, as heatwaves can affect transport services and you might need extra water.

Drink plenty of fluids and avoid excess alcohol

Drink plenty of fluids: water, lower fat milks and tea and coffee are good options.

Fruit juice, smoothies and soft drinks do count towards your fluid intake, but can be high in sugar. Limit fruit juice or smoothies to a combined total of 150ml a day and swap sugary soft drinks for diet, sugar-free or no added sugar varieties.

Look out for signs of dehydration such as increased thirst, a dry mouth, dark urine, and urinating infrequently or small amounts. Serious dehydration needs urgent medical attention.

If you are fasting for Ramadan during a heat wave, it is important to drink before dawn and follow the advice here to keep cool and prevent dehydration. If you become dehydrated you should break the fast in order to re-hydrate, this can be compensated by fasting at a later date. People with certain conditions should not fast.

Dress appropriately for the weather

If you have to go out in the heat, walk in the shade and wear lightweight, loose-fitting, light coloured cotton clothes.

Wear suitable head wear, such as a wide-brimmed hat, to reduce exposure to the face, eyes, head and neck.

When exposed to direct sunlight, cover your skin with clothing giving good protection; examples are long-sleeved shirts and loose clothing with a close weave. At home wear as little clothing as necessary.

Sunglasses should exclude both direct and peripheral exposure of the eye to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, so a wraparound design is best.

Apply sunblock, or broad-spectrum sunscreens, with high sun protection factor (SPF) of at least SPF 15 with UVA protection regularly to exposed skin.

Slow down when it’s hot

Avoid extreme physical exertion. If you can’t avoid strenuous outdoor activity, such as sport, DIY or gardening, keep it for cooler parts of the day – for example, in the early morning or evening.

Children should not take part in vigorous physical activity on very hot days, such as when temperatures are above 30°C.

Know how to keep your home cool

Shade or cover windows exposed to direct sunlight, external shutters or shades are very effective, while internal blinds or curtains are less effective but cheaper.

Metallic blinds and dark curtains can make a room hotter.

Open windows when the air feels cooler outside than inside, for example, at night. Try to get air flowing through your home, if possible.

Turn off the central heating.

Turn off lights and electrical equipment that aren’t in use.

Use electric fans if the temperature is below 35°C, but do not aim the fan directly at the body and ensure you stay hydrated with regular drinks.

Check that fridges, freezers and fans are working properly.

If insulating your home, ask for advice about avoiding overheating in summer.

Consider the risk of overheating if buying or renting, particularly for vulnerable people.

If you have concerns about an uncomfortably hot home that is affecting your health or someone else’s health, seek medical advice.

Get help from the environmental health department within your local authority; they can do a home hazard assessment.

If considering home improvements to reduce overheating, you can get help and advice from Foundations or, if you are elderly, FirstStop may be able to help.

Go indoors or outdoors, whichever feels cooler

Take a break from the heat by moving to a cooler part of the house (especially for sleeping).

Find some shaded green space or have a cool bath or shower.

Remember lots of public buildings (such as places of worship, local libraries or supermarkets) can be cool in summer; consider a visit as a way of cooling down.

Cars get hot, avoid closed spaces

Ensure that babies, children or older people are not left alone in stationary cars or other closed spaces.

Look out for children in prams or pushchairs in hot weather; keep them in the shade, remove excess clothing, ensure there is adequate air flow, and check regularly to ensure they are not overheated.

Be on the lookout for signs of heat related illness

Chronic illnesses can get worse in hot weather.

Heat exhaustion and heatstroke are two potentially serious conditions that can occur if you get too hot:

Heat exhaustion is where you become very hot and start to lose water or salt from your body. Common symptoms include weakness, feeling faint, headache, muscle cramps, feeling sick, heavy sweating and intense thirst

Heatstroke is where the body is no longer able to cool itself and a person’s body temperature becomes dangerously high. Heatstroke is less common, but more serious. Untreated symptoms include confusion, seizures and loss of consciousness

Cool your skin with water, slow down and drink water

- get them to lie down in a cool place – such as a room with air conditioning or somewhere in the shade

- remove any unnecessary clothing to expose as much of their skin as possible

- cool their skin with cool water, you could use a cool wet sponge or flannel, cool water spray, cold packs around the neck and armpits, or wrap them in a cool, wet sheet

- fan their skin while it’s moist – this will help the water to evaporate, which will help their skin cool down – an electric fan could be helpful to create an air current if the temperature is below 35C, but fans can cause excess dehydration so they should not be aimed directly on the body and will not be enough to keep them cool at temperatures above 35C

- get them to drink fluids – these should ideally be water, lower fat milks, or a rehydration treatment,

- do not give them aspirin or paracetamol – this can put the body under more strain, they should carry on taking all other prescribed medicines unless advised not to by a medical professional

- stay with the person until they’re feeling better. Most people should start to recover within 30 minutes

Get help. Call NHS 111 or in an emergency 999

If a person has improved with the cooling advice above but you still have concerns about them, contact your GP or NHS 111 for advice.

You should call 999 for an ambulance if the person:

- doesn’t respond to the above cooling treatments within 30 minutes

- has severe symptoms, such as a loss of consciousness, confusion or seizures

If the person is unconscious, you should follow the steps above and place them in the recovery position until help arrives. If they have a seizure, move nearby objects out of the way to prevent injury.