The building was evacuated at approximately 11.30am, as South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue checked the building for signs of a blaze.
Everyone in attendance at the court, including barristers, judges, defendants and members of the public, waited outside the West Bar building until around 12.15pm when the all-clear was given.
All of the morning's cases have been adjourned until this afternoon, as a result of the evacuation.
The fire alarm was sounded just moments after defendant Ashley Featherstone fled the court room after being sentenced to 13-months in prison for a string of driving offences by Judge Peter Kelson.
The 24-year-old launched himself over the dock, and ran out of the court room, followed closely behind by security staff.
Featherstone, of Summer Lane, Barnsley, was detained by security staff in the court building a short time after escaping.
Unconfirmed reports suggest Featherstone pulled the fire alarm as he was trying to make his escape.