Broughton, who spent last season with Batley Bulldogs, made his first team debut for Hull - on loan from Leeds - in 2008 and scored 140 tries in 218 career appearances.
He will now focus on his career as a quantity surveyor, but is staying at Bulldogs in a player welfare role.
The 33-year-old, from Leeds, began playing rugby at local club Queens, alongside fellow future professionals James Brown, Ben Jones Bishop and Michael McIlorum.
He came through Rhinos’ academy system, but did not make a competitive first team appearance.
After two years at Hull, he moved on to Salford Red Devils, Huddersfield Giants and Catalans Dragons, before dropping down to the Championship with Halifax in 2020.
He joined Bulldogs in pre-season and said: “Batley is a fantastic club and to have spent my final year playing there has been amazing.
“The club has a special togetherness.
“I knew plenty of the players already, especially James Brown of course as we began our journeys together.”
Broughton’s final game was Batley’s Championship play-off defeat at Toulouse Olympique last month.
“It was an amazing day,” he recalled.
“Obviously I’d have preferred one more game, but for it to end there in France, with friends in the crowd and to be on the field with Browny, made it extra special.”
Of his new role with Batley, Broughton said: “It’s something I’m very much looking forward to.
“Batley have given me the opportunity to work with them and I can’t wait to get started.”
Bulldogs coach Craig Lingard paid tribute to Broughton.
He said: “Jodie is the ultimate professional and when you see the quality of clubs he has played for, there’s no surprise.
“His approach and attitude at Batley have been first class and it’s been a pleasure to have him around the camp this year.
“We’re delighted he’s staying with us as he looks to the next stage of his career.”
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