Wheeldon joins Rovers following a two-season spell with Sheffield Eagles, having previously enjoyed top-flight stints with Hull FC, Hull KR, Castleford and London in a near-300 appearance career.
“I am really looking forward to joining Featherstone, it is a club with a great history and they always progress well,” said Wheeldon, who made more than 220 appearances in Super League prior to joining the Eagles in 2016.
“If you look through the squad already in place, there is plenty of talent and, hopefully, next season will be another successful one.
“The challenge we face here next season is massive, though a top-four finish is the minimum requirement. It is a must.
“It is going to be one hell of a competition, next year, and we are going to have to be at our best from the first round.”
Rovers boss John Duffy added: “Scott represents another fantastic addition to our squad for 2018.
“He has been a stand-out performer in the Championship for the past two years and he is a tough, no-nonsense kind of player who will do well here.
“I am looking forward to seeing him rip into pre-season training and make his debut for the club, next year.”