The Yorkshire batsman is not fit to play in today’s T20 match at Derby due to a groin injury.
Ballance, 26, will be monitored by England’s medical team ahead of Thursday’s match.
He was recalled to the Test side last week for the first time in just over a year on the back of a hundred for Yorkshire against Middlesex at Scarborough.
Martyn Moxon, Yorkshire’s director of cricket, said: “Gary’s got a bit of a tight groin which he sustained on Friday (against Birmingham Bears).
“At this stage, we don’t know whether he will be fit for the Test, but he may be ok.”
Meanwhile, Yorkshire have further injury problems ahead of tomorrow’s County Championship game against Surrey at the Oval.
Pace bowler Jack Brooks has suffered a recurrence of a quad injury, while David Willey has shin splints and will be assessed on the morning of the match.
In addition, New Zealand batsman Kane Williamson is feeling fatigued after a hectic period of cricket.
Yorkshire (from): Lyth, Lees, Leaning, Gale (captain), Rashid, Bresnan, Plunkett, Hodd, Rafiq, Patterson, Willey, Rhodes, Callis.