Fire crews were called at about 11am on Tuesday (April 12) by paramedics to the River Aire, off Whitehall Road and near the City Island flats development.
They spent nearly 45 minutes lifting the man – aged in his 40s – up and over a steep wall and metal fence before he was taken by ambulance to Leeds General Infirmary.
A spokeswoman for West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service said the man was conscious and breathing during the riverside operation.
The brigade also said his injuries were not thought to be life-threatening.
Two crews from Leeds fire station attended the incident along with a technical rescue unit from Cleckheaton.