Emergency services were called to the motorway between junctions 34 and 35 this afternoon, close to Meadowhall, at around 2pm.
South Yorkshire Police confirmed this evening that a man had died in a collision.
A spokeswoman for the force said enquiries were being made to locate the man's next of kin.
She was not able to reveal the man's age at this stage, nor would she say what vehicles are believed to have been involved in the crash.
She said police planned to issue a witness appeal shortly.
The M1 was shut northbound for several hours following the collision, causing gridlock on surrounding roads, but all lanes have since reopened.