Imran Mohammed Zaman punched the driver three times after the journey was complete, Leeds Crown Court was told.
He then got out shouting and went round to the driver's side, punched him again to the head and kicked him to the legs.
Prosecuting, Shannon Woodley said 38-year-old Zaman had called for the cab on 21 September to take him home on Elder Green in the Darnley estate area of the city.
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During the journey, Zaman kept saying to the driver "you know me", but the driver denied having ever seen him before.
As the car pulled up on Elder Green, the driver turned round to collect the money and Zaman began hitting him.
Zaman was arrested and took full responsibility, but said he only attacked after the driver had insulted him, which was dismissed in court.
Held on remand, he admitted a charge of assault occasioning actual bodily harm.
The court was told he has 33 convictions for 46 offences.
Mitigating, Kristian Cavanagh said: "Drug use has a clear impact on his behaviour and offending. To his credit he has recognised that.
"He needs to get a grip of his addiction, which he has had for in excess of 20 years."
It was heard that Zaman had "repeated breaches" of court orders, so Judge Robin Mairs told him he "could not have confidence" that further orders would be fulfilled, so handed him a 12-month jail term.
He said: "Taxi drivers are vulnerable because of the job they do.
"Make the most of this opportunity (in jail) to rid yourself of drugs."
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