Eggs produced at HMP Leeds's "Chicken Wing" are used in the kitchen or sold to staff as part of a new prison activity scheme.
Under the supervision of staff, prisoners help tend to around 50 free-range chickens.
The birds are located in an outdoor area within the prison's grounds, with sheds used to house them at night.
The initiative was revealed in the annual report of the prison's Independent Monitoring Board (IMB).
It said that "2018 saw the introduction of chickens into the prison (the 'Chicken Wing') and the eggs that are produced are sold to staff and also used in the kitchen".
The IMB's chairman Barrie Meakin said the idea was for prisoners to learn about animal husbandry.
"It's a matter of looking after the chickens and keeping the place clean," he said.
"It's just another added activity, another added interest."
In another "purposeful activity" scheme, the prison has introduced a small mushroom farm, with the produce sold to a commercial user, the report said.
It added: "Both the Chicken Wing and mushroom farm are popular with prisoners, who state that they feel that these activities give them a sense of achievement."
A Prison Service spokeswoman said: "The chickens at HMP Leeds are part of wider efforts to help prisoners learn new skills and gain employment when they leave custody."
Another popular programme is the "fusion kitchen", where prisoners are taught how to cook Asian food.
The IMB report, which covers January to December 2018, said: "It is hoped that in 2019 an Asian restaurant will open in the prison for staff use."
HMP Leeds, a category B prison for men, had a population of 1,050 as of the end of last month.
The availability and use of drugs known as new psychoactive substances posed "particular challenges" last year, while the number of mobile phones found in the prison was "of concern", the IMB's report said.
It welcomed the introduction of a scanner and extra sniffer dogs to detect drugs at the prison as part of a Ministry of Justice scheme to boost security and standards at 10 jails.
Mr Meakin said: "In a difficult operational environment and despite significant staffing constraints, we believe that, overall, prisoners at HMP Leeds are treated with humanity and respect.
"However, much more needs to be done by the prison and the wider Prison Service to tackle the availability of drugs and the widespread use of the 'mini' mobile phones which are smuggled in to support the distribution network."