The Guiseley and Yeadon Medical Practice was rated "inadequate" overall following an inspection by the CQC.
In the report, inspectors rated the surgery "inadequate" for providing safe services and "inadequate" providing well-led services.
The practice, which includes the South View Road site and the Netherfield Road Surgery branch, was rated as "requires improvement" for providing effective services.
The surgery retains a "good" rating in the "responsive" and "caring" categories.
Issues raised by the government watchdog included no recall for contraception removal, expired emergency drugs and no register for people at risk of abuse.
In the report, it said: "The provider had failed to ensure that systems and processes were established and operated effectively in order to assess, monitor and mitigate risks to patients.
"There was no process in place to recall patients for coil and implant removal/reinsertion. The provider relied on the patient to make contact when these had reached expiry.
"The provider did not have formal mechanisms in place to discuss safeguarding concerns and there was no evidence of a register of people at risk of abuse.
"There was no oversight of emergency drugs. We saw that some emergency drugs had expired at both sites.
"The provider was unable to demonstrate that staff had received the appropriate level of safeguarding training, in particular the GPs and safeguarding lead."
The CQC inspectors placed the surgery into special measures following the visit.
In the report it said: "I am placing this service in special measures. Services placed in special measures will be inspected again within six months.
"If insufficient improvements have been made such that there remains a rating of inadequate for any population group, key question or overall, we will take action in line with our enforcement procedures to begin the process of preventing the provider from operating the service.
The report added that the provider must "establish effective systems and processes to ensure good governance in accordance with the fundamental standards of care."
Guiseley and Yeadon Medical Practice had previously been inspected in November 2016 and was rated as good overall but required improvement for providing safe services.
A spokesperson for Guiseley and Yeadon Medical Practice said: "We are naturally disappointed with the outcome of our most recent inspection by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) and are working hard with our commissioners, NHS Leeds Clinical Commissioning Group, to address the recommendations made.
"We want to reassure our patients that the inspection did not identify any issues relating to clinical care and we will continue to support people with their health needs."